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miércoles, 11 de agosto de 2010

84.07 MOTORES DE EMBOLO (PISTON) ALTERNATIVO Y MOTORES ROTATIVOS, DE ENCENDIDO POR CHISPA (MOTORES DE EXPLOSION).












Motor de explosion.-
Un motor de explosión es un tipo de motor de combustión interna que utiliza la explosión de un combustible, provocada mediante una chispa, para expandir un gas empujando así un pistón. Hay de dos y de cuatro tiempos. El ciclo termodinámico utilizado es conocido como Ciclo Otto.

Este motor, también llamado motor de gasolina o motor Otto, es junto al motor diésel, el más utilizado hoy en día


Funcionamiento convencional (4 tiempos).-
El combustible se inyecta pulverizado y mezclado con el gas (habitualmente aire u oxígeno) dentro de un cilindro. La combustión total de 1 gramo de gasolina se realizaría teóricamente con 14,8 gramos de aire pero como es imposible realizar una mezcla perfectamente homogénea de ambos elementos se suele introducir un 10% más de aire del necesario (relación en peso 1/16), a veces se suele inyectar más o menos combustible, esto lo determina la sonda lambda (o sonda de oxígeno) la cual envía una señal a la ECU. Una vez dentro del cilindro la mezcla es comprimida. Al llegar al punto de máxima compresión (punto muerto superior o P.M.S.) se hace saltar una chispa, producida por una bujía, que genera la explosión del combustible. Los gases encerrados en el cilindro se expanden empujando un pistón que desliza dentro del cilindro (expansión teóricamente adiabática de los gases). La energía liberada en esta explosión es transformada en movimiento lineal del pistón, el cual, a través de una biela y el cigüeñal, es convertido en movimiento giratorio. La inercia de este movimiento giratorio hace que el motor no se detenga y que el pistón vuelva a empujar el gas, expulsándolo por la válvula correspondiente, ahora abierta. Por último el pistón retrocede de nuevo permitiendo la entrada de una nueva mezcla de combustible.

EXPLICACION EN INGLES (FOTO 3 DE ARRIBA HACIA ABAJO)
Four stroke configuration

Operation.
As their name implies, operation of four stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine:

1.Intake
Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber
2.Compression
The mixtures are placed under pressure
3.Power
The mixture is burnt, almost invariably a deflagration, although a few systems involve detonation. The hot mixture is expanded, pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work.
4.Exhaust
The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the atmosphere
Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines.

WANKEL (FOTO 1)
The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes. It operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke engine with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. In thermodynamic terms it follows the Otto engine cycle, so may be thought of as a "four-phase" engine. While it is true that three power strokes typically occur per rotor revolution due to the 3:1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft, only one power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs; this engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8, the earlier RX-7, and other models.


84.07 MOTORES DE EMBOLO (PISTON) ALTERNATIVO Y MOTORES ROTATIVOS, DE ENCENDIDO POR CHISPA (MOTORES DE EXPLOSION).

Esta partida comprende los motores de émbolo alternativo y los motores rotativos (motores con rotor triangular curvilíneo del tipo WANKEL), de encendido por chispa (excepto los del Capítulo 95), incluidos los que se destinan a la propulsión de artefactos de transporte con motor.
Estos motores tienen generalmente los órganos siguientes: cilindro, pistón o émbolo (pistón), biela, cigüeñal, volante, dispositivo de admisión o de escape, etc. Utilizan la fuerza de expansión de una mezcla de aire y combustible gaseoso o vaporizado, que se inflama en el interior del propio cilindro.
La característica distintiva de estos motores es la de llevar una bujía fijada en la cabeza del cilindro y un equipo eléctrico de encendido de alta tensión mandado por árbol motor: generatriz, bobina o magneto, condensador, distribuidor, rotor, etc.
En los tipos comunes, la mezcla detonante (aire gas o aire combustible pulverizado) se prepara en un aparato auxiliar o carburador y se introduce en el cilindro por el solo efecto de la aspiración del pistón. En algunos casos (especialmente en los motores de aviación o en algunos motores de automóviles), la inyección directa de la mezcla combustible en el cilindro se realiza con una bomba.
El combustible más utilizado es la gasolina, pero se puede emplear igualmente petróleo (queroseno), alcohol, hidrógeno, gas de alumbrado, metano, etc.
Los motores de gas son alimentados generalmente por generadores de gas incorporados, a veces, al motor, pero más frecuentemente son independientes y se clasifican en la partida 84.05 en este último caso.
Los motores de esta partida pueden ser monocilíndricos o policilíndricos. En este último caso las bielas están unidas al mismo cigüeñal y los cilindros, que se alimentan separadamente, pueden estar dispuestos de diversas formas: en línea vertical (rectos o invertidos) en dos grupos simétricos oblicuos (motores en V), o bien, opuestos horizontales o incluso, en los motores de aviación, en estrella simple o doble. El motor de pistón rotativo (motor Wankel) funciona según el mismo principio que el motor de émbolo (pistón) alternativo descrito anteriormente. Sin embargo, en lugar del cigüeñal arrastrado por el pistón con movimiento alternativo y una biela, el motor de pistón rotativo lleva un rotor triangular curvilíneo que arrastra un eje en una cámara de combustión de forma especial. El pistón divide la cámara de combustión en varios compartimentos, correspondiendo cada una de las rotaciones completas de cada lóbulo del rotor a un ciclo de cuatro tiempos. Estos motores pueden tener varias cámaras de combustión y varios rotores.
Los motores de esta partida tienen numerosas aplicaciones, principalmente: incorporación en máquinas agrícolas, accionamiento de generadores eléctricos, bombas o compresores, propulsión de aviones, automóviles, motocicletas o tractores.
Los motores de esta partida pueden llevar bombas de inyección, dispositivos de encendido, depósitos de combustible o aceite, radiadores de agua o de aceite, filtros de aire o de aceite, embragues u otros dispositivos de toma de fuerza o también de aparatos auxiliares de arranque, eléctricos u otros. Pueden llevar igualmente reductores, variadores u otros dispositivos de cambio de velocidad. Estos motores pueden tener también un árbol flexible.
Permanecen clasificados aquí los propulsores del tipo fuera de borda (fueraborda) para embarcaciones, que constan de un motor de esta partida, una hélice y un dispositivo de gobierno, constituyendo el conjunto una unidad indisociable. Estos propulsores para colocar en el exterior del casco de la embarcación son amovibles, es decir, que pueden ser instalados y separados muy fácilmente, y orientables, pivotando el conjunto sobre el punto al que se fija. Sin embargo, no se consideran motores fuera de borda (fueraborda) los conjuntos compuestos por un motor que se fija en el interior de la embarcación contra la pared del tablero de popa y un bloque hélice timón fijado en el exterior de la misma pared.
Esta partida comprende igualmente los motores móviles montados sobre patines o carretillas, para usos agrícolas, obras, etc., incluidos los que tienen un embrague auxiliar somero que permite solamente el desplazamiento de la carretilla con el motor, siempre que, sin embargo, este dispositivo no confiera al conjunto el carácter de vehículo del Capítulo 87.

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